ZHOU DYNASTY 1131 - 221 BC Part II

An Xiang's China Page

Zhou Wen Wang 1131- 1115 BC

www.wsu.edu:8000/wciv/b/bb/bba/bba68.jpg

Some sources date the accession of the Zhou Dynasty's founder as 1134 BC. His name is given also as Zhou Wu Wang.


 
Zigzags With Rong & Di Barbarians

[Editors Note: All non-Chinese were "barbarians"; The name Di was applied to northern barbarians and Rong to western barbarians.]
 
In the hun.htm section, I had expounded the ethnic nature of various Rong-di people, cleared the dispute in regards to the ethnicity of 'Rong' people, and proven that Rong people, being mainly Sino-Tibetan speaking Qiangic people, shared the same blood-line as Xia Chinese but differred in 'Culture' such as cuisine, clothing, money and language. At times of Zhou Dynasty, pockets of nomadic tribes and statelets still existed in the hearts of the Yellow River area and on Shandong Peninsula, as in the case of Di Statelet, Chi Di Statelet & Sou Man's Chang-di Statelet etc.
 
Count of West, Xibo, namely, Zhou Ancestor Ji Chang, once attacked the Doggy Rongs (said to be same as Xianyun barbarian on the steppe). Dozen years later, Zhou King Wuwang exiled the Rongs north of the Jing & Luo Rivers. The Rongs were also called Huangfu at the time, a name to mean their 'erratic submission'. 200 years later, during 17th year reign [i.e., 985 BC per Bamboo Annals]Zhou King Muwang was noted for defeating the barbarians, reaching Qinhai-Gansu regions in the west, meeting with Queen Mother of West on Mt Kunlun [possibly around Dunhuang area], and then relocating the barbarians eastward to the starting point of Jing-shui River for better management [in a similar fashion to Han Emperr Wudi's relocating Southern Huns to the south of the north Yellow River Bend].

History recorded that King Muwang captured four white wolves & four white deers (white deer and white wolf being the titles of ministers of Rongdi barbarians) during his campaign. The Huangfu (Doggy Rong) people then no longer sent in yearly gifts and tributes. Zhou King Yiwang, the grandson of King Muwang (r. 1,001 - 946 BC), would be attacked by the Rongs. The great grandson, King Xuanwang (reign 827 - 782), finally fought back against the Rongs. Shi Jing eulogized King Xuanwang's reaching Taiyuan (original Taiyuan in southern Shanxi Prov, not the appropriated one in the north of today's Shanxi Prov; however, 'Taiyuan' at the times of King Xuanwang would be the place where Jing-shui River originated, i.e., Shenxi-Ningxia area, not Shanxi).

Thereafter, King Youwang (reign 781-771) was killed by the Doggy Rongs at the foothill of Lishan Mountain and capital Haojing was sacked. Rongs who stayed on at Lishan were called Li-rong. The Rongs moved to live between the Jing & Wei Rivers. Lord Qin Xianggong was conferred the old land of Zhou by Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720). Zhou King Pingwang encouraged the Qin Lord to drive out the Quan-rongs.
 
65 years later, in the east, the Shan-rong or Mountain Rongs went across the Yan Principality of Hebei Province to attack Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province. 44 years later, the Mountain Rongs attacked Yan Principality. Around 664 BC, Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. The story of 'old horses knew the way home' would be about the joint army being lost after they penetrated deep into the Shanrong land.

Hence, Yan Statelet extended by 500 li to the northwest, in addition to the eastward 50 li which was given to Count Yan for his escorting Marquis Qi all the way into Qi Statelet. During the 16th year of Zhou King Huiwang (reign 676-652), namely, 661 BC, the Chang Di barbarians who were located near today's Jinan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Chang Di barbarians, hearing of Qi army's counter-attacks against Shanrong, embarked on a pillage in central China by attacking Wey (spelled in same way as www.chinaknowledge.de for sake of differentiation from former Wei eliminated by Jinn and later Wei that was split from Jinn) and Xing statelets. The Chang Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he' (cranes), and they cut him into pieces. A Wey minister would later find Yigong's liver to be intact, and hence he committed suicide by cutting apart his chest and saving Yigong's liver inside of his body.
 
20 years later, the Rongdi barbarians attacked Zhou King Xiangwang (reign 651-619) at the encouragement of Zhou Queen who was the daughter of Rongdi ruler. Per section "Qi Yu" of "Guo Yu", Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria in 664 BC, had campaigned against Bai-di barbarians in the west in 651 BC (i.e., 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Huan'gong was recorded to have occupied 'da xia' (i.e., Grand Xia land) in Shanxi Prov and might have crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., western Yu-shi clan's land) in Shenxi Prov. (Senior scholar Wei Juxian speculated that Qi Huan'gong had at one time reached the Bering Straits where the ex-Shang remnants had dwelled since Shang-Zhou transition time period and that it was due to Qi Huan'gong's contacts with Shang remnants that American Indians or Shang people paid a visit to China with tributes of humming birds that were recorded in Song Principality's chronicles.)
 
Jin (Jinn) Principality also helped Zhou King by attacking the Rongs and then escorted the king back to his throne 4 years after the king went into exile. Rong-di moved to live in a place called Luhun, and they would later be forced to relocate elsewhere by Qin-Jinn principalities. When Qin intended to get rid of Luhun-rong & Jiang-rong around capital Yong in 638 BC, Jinn Principality adopted a policy of allowing remotely-related barbarian clan to stay closer to the land between Qin, Jinn and Zhou Dynasty capitals: Jinn Lord Huigong, for his mother's tie with Luhun-rong clan, relocated Luhun-rong to Yi-chuan and Jiang-rong to southern Shanxi Province, i.e., namely, the southward migration to Mt Songshan area of Yun-surnamed Xianyun [Huns] clan whose Qiangic nature was validated about 80 years later by the dialogue between Fan Xuan-zi of Jinn Principality and the descendant of Jiang-rong.

Jinn Principality began the process of expansion that would merge and conquer dozens of barbarian statelets to the east of east Yellow River Bend, with Jinn Lord Xiangong merging 17 statelets and subjugating 38 others [per "Haan Fei-zi"]. After the defeat in the hands of Jinn, the Rongs moved to the land between the Xi-he (today's east segment of the Yellow River loop or bend) and the Luo River, and two groups were known at the time, Chidi (Red Di) and Baidi (White Di). (Note that Ancient West Yellow River Bend is the same as today's East Yellow River Bend. Ancient Yellow River Bend did not equate to today's inverse U-shaped course with the North Bend lying inside Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, but the U-shaped Bend with South Bend in southern Shanxi Prov and then a south-to-north turn in Hebei Province for exit into the sea.) Baidi (White Di) dwelled in ancient Yanzhou (today's Yan'an), Suizhou (today's Suide) and Yinzhou. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated Jinn defeated Baidi and remnants were know as Bai-bu-hu nomads later. Chidi (Red Di) dwelled in a place called Lu(4), near today's Shangdang. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated that Jinn Principality destroyed the Lu(4) tribe of the Chidi, and the remnants were know as Chi-she-hu nomads later. Details about barbarians were also covered at prehistory section. [Here, I had deliberately spelled Jin(4) into Jinn for sake of distinction from Jurchen Jin(1). Jin(4) is spelled Tsin in Wade-Giles.]
 
In 623 BC, i.e., during the 37th year reign, Qin Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong nomads and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban. Qin Lord Mugong conquered 12 Western Rong tribes. Around this time, there were Mianzu-Quanrong-Di-Wanrong to the west of Qin Principality, Yiqu-Dali-Wushi-Xuyan etc to the north of Qin Principality, Linhu-Loufan to the north of Jin (Jinn) Principality, and Donghu-Shanrong to the north of Yan Principality. (Mianzu could be pronounced Raozhu. Quanrong was know as Kunrong or Hunrong or Hunyi. The character 'hun4' for Hunyi or Hun-yi is the same as Hunnic King Hunye or Kunye and could mean the word of mixing-up. Wan-rong dwelled in today's Tianshui, Gansu Prov. Yiqu was one of the Xirong or Western rong stateles at ancient Qingzhou and Ningzhou. Dali-rong dwelled in today's Fengxu County. Wushi was originally Zhou land, but it was taken over by Rong. Qin King Huiwang took it back from Rong. Linhu was later destroyed by General Li Mu. Loufan belonged to Yanmenguan Pass.)
 
One hundred year later, Lord Jinn Daogong made peace with Rongdi (who attacked Zhou King Xiangwang earlier), and the Rongdi sent in gifts and tributes to Jin (Jinn). Jin (Jinn) later split into three states of Haan(2), Zhao & Wei. The two successive Jinn states which bordered the northern nomads, Wei & Zhao, plus Qin and Yan, would be busy fighting the nomads for hundreds of years, and they built separate walls to drive the nomads out. Another one hundred years, Zhao Xiang-zi of Zhao Principality took over Bing and Dai areas near Yanmenguan Pass. Zhao, together with Haan and Wei families, destroyed another opponent called Zhi-bo and split Jin (Jinn) into three states of Haan, Zhao & Wei.
 
Barbarian statelets like Dali & Yiqu built dozens of castles. Yiqu-Rong built castles to counter Qin. After about one century of relative peace, Qin began to expand by attacking Dali & Yiqu. Qin King Huiwang took over 25 cities from Yiqu-rong. At the time of Qin King Zhaowang, Qin Queen Xuantaihou killed Yiqu-rong King. (King Zhaoxiangwang's mother, Queen Dowager Xuantaihou, adultered with the former Rong king from Yiqu Statelet, with two sons born.)
 
Qin took over Shangjun from Wei. Qin took over Longxi of Gansu, Beidi and Shangjun of Shenxi, and built the Great Wall. Zhao King Wulingwang adopted reforms by wearing Hu nomads' cavalry clothing and he defeated Linhu and Loufan and built Great Wall from Dai to Yinshan Mountain. Zhao set up Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai prefectures. A Yan Principality General by the name of Qin-kai, after returning from Donghu [Eastern Hu] barbarians as a hostage, would attack Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance. Yan built Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures. Qin State founded the first united empire of Qin in 221 BC. After Qin's unification of China, Emperor Shihuangdi ordered General Meng Tian on a campaign that would drive the so-called Hu nomads or the Huns out of the areas south of the Yellow River. The Huns under Modok's father, Tou-man, fled northward and would not return till General Meng Tian died ten years later. Speculations about the nature of Rong & Di Peoples, Qiang, Sanmiao & Yuezhi was given in the Qin section and Hun section.
 
For further discussions on Barbarians & Chinese, please refer to
 

Mandate of Heaven
 
The concept of 'Heaven' as an ancient 'Di(4)' or overlord had been with Chinese since the era of Eight Ancient Lords. 'San Huang', termed the Three Sovereigns (Fuxi, Yandi the Fiery Lord, and Huangdi the Yellow Emperor), would have an alternative saying which included 'Heaven Huang', 'Land Huang', and 'Human Huang' or 'Taishan Mountain Huang'. 'Heaven' concept was widely adopted by Euroasian nomadic peoples and incorporated in their shamanism. 'Heaven' was equivalent to 'Tengri'. There is no definite way to tell where the original concept of 'heaven' had originated. Shang Dynasty's founder, Shang-Tang, claimed that Lord Highness (Heaven) instructed him to campaign against Xia Dynasty' Lord Jie because of Jie's corruption, lasciviousness and cruelty. Shang-Tang was also named 'Tian Yi' or 'Heavenly Yi'. Since 'Heaven' was considerd a Di(4), Shang-Tang was called 'Heavenly Yi'. Last Shang ruler, Jie, had refused to take admonition by claiming that the 'mandate' was with him the minute he was born.
 
Later, Confucius would term it 'Cheng Tang Revolution' or 'Shang Tang Revolution', a word that would be used by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in his efforts at overthrowing Manchu rule. Professor Lock Hoe had commented that China's dynastic changes and revolutions (as seen in the saying 'Every 50 Years, A Cycle In Cathay') had served as an illuminating guide for the Jesuits who visited China in the 16-17th centuries, and it was due to the Jesuits who propogated the egalitarian and revolutionary ideas that led to the conclusion that French or British royal houses could be overthrown by a 'revolution'.
 
The citation of the 'Mandate of Heaven' could be seen in Zhou King Wuwang's campaign against the Shang Dynasty in the 11th century BC. Zhou was a small tribal state in today's Shaanxi Provice, southwest of the Mount Qishan, in a place called 'Zhouyuan'. The last Shang ruler, Zhouwang, would be a despotic ruler. He killed one marquis (Jiuhou or Jiu Hou) and the marquis' daughter because the marqui's daughter was not lewd to him. Another marquis (Er Hou or Er'hou) was killed when he tried to protect Jiuhou. Count Xibo, i.e., Ji Chang, sighed about the killings.

At the vilification of Shang minister Chonghouhu, Ji Chang was imprisoned by Shang King Zhouwang. When imprisoned in a place called Youli (in Henan Prov), Ji Chang renovated the ancient Fu-xi '8 Gua' into '64 Gua', a divinity method called 'milfoil divination' (Yi Jing, Book of Changes). Zhouwang would kill Count Xibo's elder son, Boyikao, and made a dish out of Boyikao's flesh for Xibo to eat. Zhouwang laughed when Xibo ate it without knowing that it was his son's flesh. Count Xibo was set free only after Xibo's minister bribed Zhouwang through a Shang minister (Fei Zhong) by presenting a beauty from You-xin-shi clan, a stallion from Li-rong Statelet and other treasures. (Xibo was titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou. Ancient title for 'Count' might not be of same level as that in Europe and could be higher than marquis in Zhou times.)

Ji Chang would manage his statelet so well that old people went there for retirement, and two princes of Guzhu Statelet (Mo-tai-shi clan) in southern Manchuria, Bo-yi and Shu-qi, came to live in Zhou land. Two lords of ancient Yu and Rui statelets had disputes over a patch of land and they decided to have Ji Chang arbitrate it; but once they entered the Zhou land, they felt guilty about it after observing the civility of Zhou people; and they called off their trip and returned to home statelets, and vacated the land disputed. Some Shang ministers defected to Zhou. Over 40 statelets defected to Zhou and proposed that Ji Chang be the king.
 
Prince Bigan, son of Shang King Zhouwang, would be deposed for admonishing Zhouwang on the deeds. Xibo would attack Quanrong or Doggy Rong (said to be descendants of Panhu, i.e. southern barbarians in Wuling, Changsha Commandary, and possibly hinting the relocation to western China of early San-Miao people. Later Chidi was said to be of same family as Quanrong). Then, Xibo invaded a Shang vassal called Mixu-guo Fief (Lingtai of Gansu Prov) and took over Mixu drums as bounty for Tang-shu.

The next year, when Count Xibo invaded another Shang vassal called the Ji-guo (also pronounced as Li2 or Qi2) Statelet, somewhere near Shangdang of eastern Shanxi Prov, Zu Yi, a Shang minister, expressed the worry that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' might be changed. Shang King Zhouwang rebutted Zu Yi, saying that the 'Mandate Of Heaven' was with him the minute he was born. In the next two years consecutively, Xibo then invaded Yu-guo fief (Qinyang of Henan Prov, next to Shang capital), and then conquered Chong-guo fief (i.e., Chonghouhu's fief at Songxian County of Henan Prov) after two sieges within 30 days. Xibo then built city at Feng-yi [Yunxian county of Shenxi Prov] and relocated capital there from Zhou-yuan of Qishan Mountain.
 
Jiang Taigong (i.e., Luu Shang of Lü-shi clan or Jiang Ziya with Jiang surname, aka Taigongwang) abandoned his post of 'da fu' with Shang King for the west. (Mencius said that Luu Shang, i.e., descendant of Luu-shi clan from Yao-Shun time period, first fled to the east sea coastline to evade Shang rule after last Shang King Zhouwang enthroned around 1154 BC and refused to take admonition, then came back to capital Caoge as buffalo butcher, then went to Mengjin as a peddler, and finally went to northwest to fish on Wei-shui river bank.) Lü Shang was against the extravagent task of building 'Lu Tai' (deer platform) palace for Shang King Zhouwang. Lü Shang then left with his wife Ma-shi and went to Wei-shui River for fishing till Zhou King Wenwang came along and met him. Wenwang commented that his father, Zhou ancestor Taigong, was in anticipation of Lü Shang for a long time. Xibo died at age 97, with a claim of king title for 9 years. (Ancient scholars disputed Xibo or Zhou King Wenwang's king title since Zhou king could not have existed at the same time as Shang king.)
 
Wuwang, named Ji (last name) Fa (first name), expanded his influences on basis of 50 years of management by his father Ji Chang who was conferred the title of Xibo (Count West) by last Shang King. After Xibo passed away, Zhou King Wuwang would rally eight hundred Shang vassals on the bank of the Yellow River, Mengjin. Bo-yi & Shu-qi came to rebuke Wuwang as to the military campaign while father was not properly buried yet. (Scholars disputed the number of 800 vassals as unrealistic.)
 
When Zhou King Wuwang first called upon various tribes to rebel against Shang, he stated that he was carrying out the order from the Heaven to penalize Shang king who had disrupted his kingdom by killing his elder son (Bigan) and imprisoning the uncle (Ji-zi) under the influence of the witch-like Shang queen (Daji). While crossing the Yellow River, a white fish jumped aboard. Fish was interpreted as a sign of war for carrying scales or shields on its body, while the color of whiteness was the embodiment of Shang. Interpreting the white fish as an omen, he called off the first campaign on the Yellow River bank after rallying 800 Shang vassals. The vassals said to Wenwang, "Zhouwang could be campaigned against by now." Wuwang said, "You guys did not know the 'Mandate Of Heaven' yet."
 
Zhouwang's brother, Wei-zi, fled the Shang Dynasty capital. Zhouwang's son, Prince Bigan, seeing the departure of Wei-zi, would try to pursuade Zhouwang again, but he was ordered killed by Zhouwang to see how many compartments Bigan's heart had. Zhouwang's uncle, Prince Ji-zi, would pretend to have gone mentally ill for sake of avoiding Zhouwang's persecution, but he was still imprisoned by Zhouwang. When Shang's chief ritual and music ministers, Tai-Shi (grand musician) and Shao-Shi (junior musician), fled to Zhou with Shang's ritual instruments, Zhou King Wuwang now orderd a campaign against Shang, two {? ten per Chu Bosi) years after Mengjin Assembly. With the help of counsellor, Jiang Taigong, Zhou Lord Wuwang launched an attack at Shang Dynasty which controlled central China at the time.

Wuwang assembled 300 chariots, 3000 brave soldiers, and an army of 45000 and crossed the Yellow River at Mengjin on Wuwu day of Dec of 11th year reign. "Shi Ji" recorded that Wuwang called his troops by the name of 'people from the west', and that his allies included eight barbarian statelets, the Qiangs from Gansu, the Shu-Sou-Mao-Wei statelets in Sichuan Province, Lu and Peng from the northwest, and Yong and Pu south of the Han-shui River. In the outskirts of Shang capital Chaoge, a place called Muye [i.e., Jixian county of Henan Prov], he met his alliance who had joined him with 4000 more chariots. The allied army confronted the Shang army of 700 thousand and defeated them.

(Some scholar disputed the Shang army's number of 700,000 as unrealistic since Shang China's population at the time would not be too far away from 1 million, and Xu Zhuoyun cited Mencius statement of 'weapons floating above blood stream' in disputing the popular claim that Shang army defected to Zhou during the battle. Scholar Xu Zhuoyun and Wei Juxian both cited ancient classics in attributing last Shang King's exhaustion in eastward campaign against Dong-yi or Huai-yi barbarians to his losing control in the west.)
 
Scholar Luo Xianglin claimed that Zhou people had asserted control over the Shang people via advanced weaponry of chariots. Luo Xianglin further pointed out that Zhou had special ministry in charge of standardization, materials, quality of chariot manufacturing.
 
Ji Fa hence proclaimed the founding of Zhou Dynasty under the 'Mandate of Heaven'. The 'Mandate of Heaven' become a norm for the substitution of Chinese dynasties. To enforce the concept, some legends would be made to support the claim of the will of the Heaven. For Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang, there was the legend that his mother had dreamt about some dragon flying into the house when she gave birth to his son. Even nomadic rulers, like the Hunnic king Liu Yuan of Hunnic Zhao Dynasty (AD 304-329) would proclaim himself emperor in AD 308 and declared his dynasty as 'Han' on basis of one sound logic that Hunnic kings had historically ackowledged that they were the nephews of Han Chinese emperors. By designating his dynasty as 'Han', he intended to play the card of asserting the so-called 'Mandate of Heaven'.
 
 
Timeline of Zhou Dynasty
 
Prior to Zhou Dynasty, the rulers of Xia and Shang Dynasties called themselves 'Di(4)' posthumously, namely, the word that would denote the equivalent of legendary overlords for Heaven, Earth and Mount Taishan in Chinese history or 'emperor' in the western sense. Zhou King Wuwang, after overthrowing Shang Dynasty , decided to adopt the title of 'wang' or king to show his humbleness in front of the legendary overlords. They were called 'wang' posthumously as well.
 
First part of Zhou, Western Zhou, with its capital near today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, ended in 771 BC when King Youwang was killed by Quanrong (i.e., the Doggy Rong nomads) who were invited by Marquis Shenhou of Shen Principality to avenge the king for deposing his daughter-queen and crown prince. The son of Youwang, King Pingwang, moved his capital to Luoyang, Henan Province in 770 BC, with the help of the ancestors of later Qin Empire. Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for assisting Zhou King Pingwang in the crackdown on the Rong nomads and relocation of Zhou capital. Zhou King Pingwang also conferred Qin the old Zhou land of Qishan and Feng should Qin receover it from the Rongs. Historians named the later part of Zhou as Eastern Zhou and it ended in 256 BC when the great grandfather of First Qin Emperor Shihuangdi invaded the Zhou capital and removed all Zhou Kingdom's bronze utensils (i.e., ding or cauldron).
 
Eastern Zhou, however, was further sub-divided into the two time periods of 1) Spring and Autumn and 2) Warring States. This division was based on the emergence of six prominent families in determing the politics of Jinn Principality in 475 BC.
 
 
Rankings Of Zhou Lords & Principalities
 

In Chinese, there exists a fixed phrase called 'wang hou jiang xiang' which means the four titles of king, marquis, general and prime minister. Though the rulers of dozens of Zhou principalities called themselves 'Gong', a word that denotes the title of 'Duke', this word is more like a general title to mean a ruler or a lord or simply a complimentary title. A similar word to be found in English would be probably 'Sir' or 'Grandpa'. Scholar Fu Sinian studied the bronze inscriptions, i.e., jin wen, from Zhou times and concluded that the ancient five rankings of duke, marquis, count, viscount, and baron did not conform with bronze iinscriptions or classics such as Shang Shu or Shi Jing. Fu Sinian stated that duke-gong, count-bo, viscount-zi, and baron-nan were originally used within a royal family as rankings; governmentally, 'bo' or count was the leader of a conferred fief while 'hou' or marquis was for denoting the vassal guarding border posts. Ancient title for 'Count' might not be of same level as that in Europe and should be higher than marquis in Shang-Zhou times.

Zhou King Wenwang, i.e., Xibo or Count Of West, originally titled a marquis, at the same level as Jiu Hou and Er Hou, received the conferral of count from last Shang King. The Zhou court conferred the title of count on the descendants of the two uncles of Zhou King Wenwang. The ancestor of Chu Principaility, Xiong Yi, was conferred by Zhou King Chenwang the title of count and the land of Dan'yang. Qin Lord Xianggong was conferred the title of Count by Zhou King Pingwang for the crackdown on the Rong barbarians. During the 10th year of the reign, Zhou King Huiwang conferred onto Lord Qi, i.e., Marquis Qi Huan'gong, the title of Count. King Xiangwang conferred onto Jinn Lord the title of Count and the land of Yangfan or 'he nei' (pronounced as He-rui in ancient Chinese to mean the winding section of the Yellow River).
 
In Zhou times, some of the 'gong' lords were indeed titled as equivalent to dukes. The brothers of Zhou King are entitled 'Duke'. The Shang capital areas were divided into three parts, Bei (Tangying, Henan or north of Jixian county per Chu Bosi) to the north, Yong to the west, and Wey to the east. Three brothers, Cai-shu, Guan-shu & Huo-shu, were named three superintendents over Shang remnants. Guan-shu, i.e., brother Shu-xian, was conferred Duke of Guan (Zhenzhou, Henan) as well as superintendent of Yong. Cai-shu, i.e., brother Shu-du, was conferred Duke of Cai (Shangcai, Henan) as well as superintendent of Wey. Bei was left with Shang Prince Wugeng, but under the supervision of brother Huo-shu. Brother Dan, i.e., Zhougong, was conferred Duke Zhou of Qufu, Shandong Province.

(Duke Zhougong would later send his son, Boqin, to Qufu, and Boqin built the city of Qufu.) Boqin's statelet would be Lu. Brother Shi, i.e., Zhaogong (Shaogong), was conferred the land of Yan (Jixian County, Tianjin, Hebei Prov), and he was referred to as 'Yanbo' or count of Yan. Duke Zhougong's taking over regency after King Wuwang's death triggered a rebellion by brothers Guan-shu & Cai-shu. Guan-shu & Cai-shu allied with Wugeng, Yan3 [Qufu of Shandong Prov], Pugu [Boxing of Shandong], Xu-yi [northern Jiangsu] & Huai-yi [northern Anhui] for a rebellion. Zhougong mounted an eastern campaign that lasted three years. Per Mencius, Zhougong drove King Feilian of eastern people to the coast and killed him.

Altogether 50 statelets were routed. Zhougong would kill Wugeng and Guan-shu, and exiled Cai-shu. To the northeast of Luoyang, Zhougong built a city called Chengzhou and relocated Shang people of Bei-Yong-Wey to Chengzhou (Luoyi). Alternatively, Duke Zhaogong was said to be responsible for building Chengzhou city under the order of Zhou King Wuwang, while the original Zhou capital in Shenxi Prov was named 'Zongzhou' or ancestral Zhou capital. Zhougong devised a new 'jing [square-shaped] tian [land]' system on basis of Xia and Shang experiences, and endorsed the elder son inheritance system. Zhougong conferred onto the younger brother the title of Wey-kang-shu, i.e., Marquis of Wey or Marquis of Meng. (The 16th generation descendant of Wey-kang-shu would be Wey Lord Yigong who died in the hands of Chang Di barbarians. Qi Lord Huangong, after defeating Chang-di, erected Wey Lord Wengong and relocated Wey capital to Chuqiu of Henan Prov.)
 
King Wuwang built a tomb for Shang Prince Bigan and then west back to the west. Wuwang made further conferrals, and made the descendant of Shen-nong-shi (Lord Yandi) inherit the land of Jiao (Shanxian County, Shenxi), the descendant of Lord Huangdi inherit the land of Zhu, the descendant of Lord Yao inherit the land of Ji (a statelet to the southwest of today's Beijing, Hebei which was taken over by Yan later), the descendant of Lord Shun inherit the land of Chen (Wanqiu County), and the descendant of Lord Yu inherit the land of Qih (Yongqiu, Bianzhou, near Kaifeng of Henan) with the title of Donglougong (whose 21st generation grandson was exterminated by Chu Principality). Remnants of Chen, pronounced as 'dan' in ancient Chinese and in today's Fujian dialect, later fled to Qi Principality, changed their name to Tian, and ultimately usurped the Qi principality of Jiang lineage.
 
The rest of the lords are mostly marquis, and this include Marquis Shenhou. (One of Marquis Shenhou was the father-in-law of last Western Zhou king.) Zhou King Wuwang, to thank his counsellor Jiang Taigong for the efforts in overthrowing Shang, had conferred the land of Yingqiu (today's Linzi, Shandong Province) as Qi Principality. Lord Qi Huangong was the first of the five hegemony lords during the Spring and Autumn time period. Jin (Jinn) Principality, i.e., today's Shanxi Province or the land of Tao-tang-shi clan, was conferred to the king's brother (Shu-yu) by Zhou King Chengwang after Zhou Duke Zhougong quelled the Tao-tang-shi.

King Chengwang was the son of King Wuwang and Yi-jiang (daughter of Jiang Taigong). Shu-yu's son, Ji Xie, was called Marquis Jinhou by citation of the Jinn-shui River of Shanxi Prov. (Scholar Liu Qiyu stated that ancient Jinn-shui was near Pingyang County of southern Shanxi Prov and later approriated to northern Shanxi Prov's Taiyuan area. Tao-tang-shi was a vassal of Xia/Shang Dynasties and had a history of over 1100 years.) Shu-yu made the city of Ji[4] (i.e., Lord Yao's capital) as his capital. After Jinn Principality split into three states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 475 BC, the Zhou court had conferred the titles of marquis to all three rulers, respectively.
 
While Marquis Wei Wenhou was a marquis, his son, King Wei Huiwang, called himself 'king'. But this was during the Warring States time period. The lords who called themselves kings during the Spring and Autumn time periods would be those in southern and southeastern China, namely, the states of Chu, Wu and Yue.
 
The ex-Shang Prince Wei-Zi (Qi) was made the duke of Song. The inheritor of last Shang(1) Dynasty heritage was given the title of 'Shang(4) Gong', namely, the Highest Duke. This would be after Duke Zhougong quelled the rebellion of Shang Prince Wugeng and two brothers (Guan-shu and Cai-shu) in a matter of three years. Lord Song Xianggong was one of the five hegemonies, too.